Resiliency, to summarize, is the ability to bounce back from difficult circumstances. People living with mental health challenges often have high resilience to the opposition because they have grown resilient through trial by fire.
This piece will focus on what is going on in the brain with resiliency and perhaps a few suggestions on how we can help our brains form it.
The Different Aspects of Building Resiliency
First, let us discuss what scientists believe are the building blocks of resilience. In one paper written in 2013, they examined the “multiple interacting factors” of resilience including, “genetics, epigenetics, developmental environment, psychosocial factors, neurochemicals, and functional neural circuitry, play critical roles in developing and modulating resilience in an integrated way (Wu et al. 2013.)”
Centering on the “neurochemicals and functional neural circuitry,” they go on to state that genetics (how we are changed by genetic changes) and epigenetics (the study of how a person’s environment influences their genes) interact and determine the biological characteristics of a person including how, when, and if they will form resiliency
One’s environment, where you grew up, your family of origin, along with any trauma that may have been involved, shape and regulate our genes and through that changes our neuroplasticity (the idea that the brain is pliable, and we can learn throughout a lifetime.) Neuroplasticity molds and modulates neurocircuits in the brain and forms psychological factors that underlie the formation of resilience.
Training Our Brains to Be More Resilient
Genetics and epigenetics are not the only forces molding our brains through neuroplasticity, and we can harness these factors to help our brains become more resilient.
A study conducted by Eric Nestler, M.D., Ph.D., utilized the social-defeat model of stress, used mice to model stress and responses to it, such as exhibiting the symptoms of depression. They put an average mouse in the cage with a more dominant and aggressive one. They continued the treatment for several days and then placed a screen between them. Some of the mice reacted with depression even though they had been removed from the aggressive mouse’s physical presence, but interestingly, other mice did not (Nester et al., 2012).
Nester and his colleague’s experiment gave insight into how the brain can become resilient to stress and aggression against one’s person. The next step was to understand why some mice formed resilience while others did not. In a quote by Dr. Nester, we find the answer.
“The most important and interesting principle is that resilience is not a passive process. It’s not that the resilient mice simply don’t show the bad effects of stress seen in susceptible mice. Some of those kinds of changes are seen, but by far the most predominant phenomenon is that the resilient mice show a whole additional set of changes that help the animal cope with stress.”
There is a firm connection between resiliency and neuroplasticity, which means all of our brains are pliable and can be changed, as we shall see, with exposure to stress so long as we keep in mind that we are the teachers of our brains (see my articles on neuroplasticity.)
Brain Changes and Resiliency
In yet another study performed by Ming-Hu Han, Ph.D. and colleagues focused on the neurobiology of “active” resiliency. Building on earlier work and also using the social-defeat model, they researched how gene expression is immensely different in resilient and stress-susceptible mice.
Interestingly, for every one-hundred genes changed in the susceptible mice, three times that or 300 genes changed in the resilient mice. Although both types of mice had increased brain activity, the resilient mice reached a threshold point then responded to their stressors in balancing and normalizing changes in their brains.
These findings don’t mean that resilient mice (brains) are not
This means that resilient brains are not asymptomatic following stress, but instead, they are actively using more genes to counteract stress. Another and perhaps more critical observation made by the researchers was that before things got better for the mice, things got worse for them in the time leading up to the tipping point where the resilient mice brains became counterbalanced to the stress (Friedman et al. 2014).
This, Han observed, was like the changes patients experience in exposure therapy, used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), where people are exposed to their fears to gain control over their reactions to them. Exposure therapy patients will suffer more at the beginning of treatment, but will slowly their reactions subside as the brain adapts.
Summing it All Up
Genetics and epigenetics hold considerable sway over a person’s ability to form resilience. However, they are not the entire story. Although our brains may seem unchanging, they are plastic and pliable (neuroplastic.)
As it has been shown through research, brains form resilience in the face of stress, our brains are capable of creating a balance in our perceptions of what is happening to us, but first, we suffer before we heal.
Resiliency is something we can all learn to handle the stressors of our day-to-day lives in the rough-and-tumble world.
“The oak fought the wind and was broken, the willow bent when it must and survived.” ~ Robert Jordan
“The human capacity for burden is like bamboo- far more flexible than you’d ever believe at first glance.” ~ Jodi Picoult
Averill, L. A., Averill, C. L., Kelmendi, B., Abdallah, C. G., & Southwick, S. M. (2018). Stress response modulation underlying the psychobiology of resilience. Current psychiatry reports, 20(4), 1-13.
Friedman, A. K., Walsh, J. J., Juarez, B., Ku, S. M., Chaudhury, D., Wang, J., … & Han, M. H. (2014). Enhancing depression mechanisms in midbrain dopamine neurons achieves homeostatic resilience. Science, 344(6181), 313-319.
Hunter, R. G., Gray, J. D., & McEwen, B. S. (2018). The neuroscience of resilience. Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research, 9(2), 305-339.
Russo, S. J., Murrough, J. W., Han, M. H., Charney, D. S., & Nestler, E. J. (2012). Neurobiology of resilience. Nature Neuroscience, 15(11), 1475-1484.
Wu, G., Feder, A., Cohen, H., Kim, J. J., Calderon, S., Charney, D. S., & Mathé, A. A. (2013). Understanding resilience. Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 7, 10.
If you are a survivor or someone who loves a survivor and cannot find a therapist who treats complex post-traumatic stress disorder, please contact the CPTSD Foundation. We have a staff of volunteers who have been compiling a list of providers who treat CPTSD. They would be happy to give you more ideas about where to look for and find a therapist to help you. Go to the contact us page and send us a note stating you need help, and our staff will respond quickly to your request.
Are you a therapist who treats CPTSD? Please, consider dropping us a line to add you to our growing list of providers. You would get aid in finding clients, and you would be helping someone find the peace they deserve. Go to the contact us page and send us a note, and our staff will respond quickly.
Shortly, CPTSD Foundation will have compiled a long list of providers who treat complex post-traumatic stress disorder. When it becomes available, we will be putting it on our website www.CPTSDFoundation.org.
Make sure to visit us and sign up for our weekly newsletter to help keep you informed on treatment options and much more for complex post-traumatic stress disorder.
If you or a loved one live in the despair and isolation that comes with complex post-traumatic stress disorder, please, come to us for help. CPTSD Foundation offers a wide range of services, including:
- Daily Calls
- The Healing Book Club
- Support Groups
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The Healing Book Club
Today, CPTSD Foundation would like to invite you to our healing book club, reading a new book that began in September. The title of the latest featured book is The Body Keeps the Score by Bessel van der Kolk.
Led by Sabra Cain, the healing book club is only $10 per month. The fee goes towards scholarships for those who cannot afford access to materials offered by CPTSD Foundation.
Should you decide to join the Healing Book Club, please purchase your books through our Amazon link to help us help you.
All our services are reasonably priced, and some are even free. So, to gain more insight into how complex post-traumatic stress disorder is altering your life and how you can overcome it, sign-up; we will be glad to help you. If you cannot afford to pay, go to www.cptsdfoundation.org/scholarship to apply for aid. We only wish to serve you.
My name is Shirley Davis and I am a freelance writer with over 40-years- experience writing short stories and poetry. Living as I do among the corn and bean fields of Illinois (USA), working from home using the Internet has become the best way to communicate with the world. My interests are wide and varied. I love any kind of science and read several research papers per week to satisfy my curiosity. I have earned an Associate Degree in Psychology and enjoy writing books on the subjects that most interest me.
this is great news.
less encouraging and disheartening is other commentary on personality disorders and cptsd
sure any prolonged or sudden subjective distress or physical trauma impacts personality.
But surely greater caution is needed when making judgements on enduring personality traits as subtypes in personality disorders.
Plasticity, but for who?
The Australian Biologist Jeremy Griffiths is making a new helpful contribution at http://www.humancondition.com
It’s worth a look and listen.
also try a name sake Dr Amy L. Fraher
https://the conversation. com/proprioception-our-imperceptible-6th-sense-150775